22-year-old Rudolf Lunder and 15-year-old Ivan Adamič, both shot in the back by Austrian soldiers in Ljubljana on 20 September 1908
September 1908 protests
Early 20th century saw rising tensions between the Slovenian and German-speaking communities, with increases in vandalism and violence. Ethnic tensions peaked in September 1908 after an incident in the city of Ptuj on September 13, when the German and the Slovenian community both held nationally significant gatherings on the same day (the Germans purposefully scheduled theirs to coincide with the Slovenian one). Upon their arrival by train, ten Slovenians were arrested for flying the then-banned Slovenian flag, and the rest were prevented from leaving the station by the Germans, who pelted them with stones and smashed windows of Slovenian-owned establishments. After some physical violence, which the local police did nothing to stop, both gatherings did take place, but tensions once again flared in the afternoon when Slovenians attempted to board the train. A crowd of about 400 Slovenians and 800 Germans engaged in a fist fight, both on and off the train.
The events at Ptuj triggered nation-wide demonstrations. On September 18, 10,000 Slovenians organised a peaceful protest at Ljubljana City Hall. As the crowd began to leave the scene, however, German onlookers poured ink on the protesters, infuriating the protesters, who immediately attacked the German Casino, a symbol of the German community in Ljubljana, broke through police lines and smashed all of its windows. The Carniolan government building and a local German bank met a similar fate, as did many German-owned establishments. As the local police failed to stop the rioting, the local government responded by calling in the military, which was authorised to use deadly force and imposed a curfew and duly arrested anyone caught violating it.
That Sunday, on September 20, 22-year-old Rudolf Lunder had been out celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Carniolan Printing Society, of which he was a member, and was on his way home with his fiancée. Since major streets had been cordoned off, they took a different path, which led them to St. Nicolas’ Cathedral, where the army had just suddenly opened fire on a small number of civilians singing Slovenian songs. Rudolf was shot in the back trying to flee the scene and died in his fiancée’s arms.
15-year-old Ivan Adamič, the son of a prominent Slovenian family, had been showing an American relative around Ljubljana, and narrowly missed the 8pm curfew. He, too, was on his way home when the military opened fire, and immediately joined the fleeing crowd. Like Lunder, Adamič was fatally shot in the back.
7 other young men were shot or stabbed by the soldiers, but later recovered.
Over 20,000 Slovenians from all Slovenian lands were reported to have attended Adamič and Lunder’s funeral.
Sources: [1], [2]

22-year-old Rudolf Lunder and 15-year-old Ivan Adamič, both shot in the back by Austrian soldiers in Ljubljana on 20 September 1908

September 1908 protests

Early 20th century saw rising tensions between the Slovenian and German-speaking communities, with increases in vandalism and violence. Ethnic tensions peaked in September 1908 after an incident in the city of Ptuj on September 13, when the German and the Slovenian community both held nationally significant gatherings on the same day (the Germans purposefully scheduled theirs to coincide with the Slovenian one). Upon their arrival by train, ten Slovenians were arrested for flying the then-banned Slovenian flag, and the rest were prevented from leaving the station by the Germans, who pelted them with stones and smashed windows of Slovenian-owned establishments. After some physical violence, which the local police did nothing to stop, both gatherings did take place, but tensions once again flared in the afternoon when Slovenians attempted to board the train. A crowd of about 400 Slovenians and 800 Germans engaged in a fist fight, both on and off the train.

The events at Ptuj triggered nation-wide demonstrations. On September 18, 10,000 Slovenians organised a peaceful protest at Ljubljana City Hall. As the crowd began to leave the scene, however, German onlookers poured ink on the protesters, infuriating the protesters, who immediately attacked the German Casino, a symbol of the German community in Ljubljana, broke through police lines and smashed all of its windows. The Carniolan government building and a local German bank met a similar fate, as did many German-owned establishments. As the local police failed to stop the rioting, the local government responded by calling in the military, which was authorised to use deadly force and imposed a curfew and duly arrested anyone caught violating it.

That Sunday, on September 20, 22-year-old Rudolf Lunder had been out celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Carniolan Printing Society, of which he was a member, and was on his way home with his fiancée. Since major streets had been cordoned off, they took a different path, which led them to St. Nicolas’ Cathedral, where the army had just suddenly opened fire on a small number of civilians singing Slovenian songs. Rudolf was shot in the back trying to flee the scene and died in his fiancée’s arms.

15-year-old Ivan Adamič, the son of a prominent Slovenian family, had been showing an American relative around Ljubljana, and narrowly missed the 8pm curfew. He, too, was on his way home when the military opened fire, and immediately joined the fleeing crowd. Like Lunder, Adamič was fatally shot in the back.

7 other young men were shot or stabbed by the soldiers, but later recovered.

Over 20,000 Slovenians from all Slovenian lands were reported to have attended Adamič and Lunder’s funeral.

Sources: [1], [2]

“Slovenian cultural activity”
glass front of the German Casino in Ljubljana on the morning after the Wendish* attack on 20 September 1908
*Wendish (orig. windisch) is a disparaging expression used by German speakers for Slovenians at the time
September 1908 protests
Early 20th century saw rising tensions between the Slovenian and German-speaking communities, with increases in vandalism and violence. Ethnic tensions peaked in September 1908 after an incident in the city of Ptuj on September 13, when the German and the Slovenian community both held nationally significant gatherings on the same day (the Germans purposefully scheduled theirs to coincide with the Slovenian one). Upon their arrival by train, ten Slovenians were arrested for flying the then-banned Slovenian flag, and the rest were prevented from leaving the station by the Germans, who pelted them with stones and smashed windows of Slovenian-owned establishments. After some physical violence, which the local police did nothing to stop, both gatherings did take place, but tensions once again flared in the afternoon when Slovenians attempted to board the train. A crowd of about 400 Slovenians and 800 Germans engaged in a fist fight, both on and off the train.
The events at Ptuj triggered nation-wide demonstrations. On September 18, 10,000 Slovenians organised a peaceful protest at Ljubljana City Hall. As the crowd began to leave the scene, however, German onlookers poured ink on the protesters, infuriating the protesters, who immediately attacked the German Casino, a symbol of the German community in Ljubljana, broke through police lines and smashed all of its windows. The Carniolan government building and a local German bank met a similar fate, as did many German-owned establishments. As the local police failed to stop the rioting, the local government responded by calling in the military, which was authorised to use deadly force and imposed a curfew and duly arrested anyone caught violating it.
That Sunday, on September 20, 22-year-old Rudolf Lunder had been out celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Carniolan Printing Society, of which he was a member, and was on his way home with his fiancée. Since major streets had been cordoned off, they took a different path, which led them to St. Nicolas’ Cathedral, where the army had just suddenly opened fire on a small number of civilians singing Slovenian songs. Rudolf was shot in the back trying to flee the scene and died in his fiancée’s arms.
15-year-old Ivan Adamič, the son of a prominent Slovenian family, had been showing an American relative around Ljubljana, and narrowly missed the 8pm curfew. He, too, was on his way home when the military opened fire, and immediately joined the fleeing crowd. Like Lunder, Adamič was fatally shot in the back.
7 other young men were shot or stabbed by the soldiers, but later recovered.
Over 20,000 Slovenians from all Slovenian lands were reported to have attended Adamič and Lunder’s funeral.
Sources: [1], [2]
Image taken from the magnificent exhibition From Plague, Famine and War, Deliver Us, O Lord: Duchy of Carniola in Year One of the Great War, available online at Sistory.

Slovenian cultural activity

glass front of the German Casino in Ljubljana on the morning after the Wendish* attack on 20 September 1908

*Wendish (orig. windisch) is a disparaging expression used by German speakers for Slovenians at the time

September 1908 protests

Early 20th century saw rising tensions between the Slovenian and German-speaking communities, with increases in vandalism and violence. Ethnic tensions peaked in September 1908 after an incident in the city of Ptuj on September 13, when the German and the Slovenian community both held nationally significant gatherings on the same day (the Germans purposefully scheduled theirs to coincide with the Slovenian one). Upon their arrival by train, ten Slovenians were arrested for flying the then-banned Slovenian flag, and the rest were prevented from leaving the station by the Germans, who pelted them with stones and smashed windows of Slovenian-owned establishments. After some physical violence, which the local police did nothing to stop, both gatherings did take place, but tensions once again flared in the afternoon when Slovenians attempted to board the train. A crowd of about 400 Slovenians and 800 Germans engaged in a fist fight, both on and off the train.

The events at Ptuj triggered nation-wide demonstrations. On September 18, 10,000 Slovenians organised a peaceful protest at Ljubljana City Hall. As the crowd began to leave the scene, however, German onlookers poured ink on the protesters, infuriating the protesters, who immediately attacked the German Casino, a symbol of the German community in Ljubljana, broke through police lines and smashed all of its windows. The Carniolan government building and a local German bank met a similar fate, as did many German-owned establishments. As the local police failed to stop the rioting, the local government responded by calling in the military, which was authorised to use deadly force and imposed a curfew and duly arrested anyone caught violating it.

That Sunday, on September 20, 22-year-old Rudolf Lunder had been out celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Carniolan Printing Society, of which he was a member, and was on his way home with his fiancée. Since major streets had been cordoned off, they took a different path, which led them to St. Nicolas’ Cathedral, where the army had just suddenly opened fire on a small number of civilians singing Slovenian songs. Rudolf was shot in the back trying to flee the scene and died in his fiancée’s arms.

15-year-old Ivan Adamič, the son of a prominent Slovenian family, had been showing an American relative around Ljubljana, and narrowly missed the 8pm curfew. He, too, was on his way home when the military opened fire, and immediately joined the fleeing crowd. Like Lunder, Adamič was fatally shot in the back.

7 other young men were shot or stabbed by the soldiers, but later recovered.

Over 20,000 Slovenians from all Slovenian lands were reported to have attended Adamič and Lunder’s funeral.

Sources: [1], [2]

Image taken from the magnificent exhibition From Plague, Famine and War, Deliver Us, O Lord: Duchy of Carniola in Year One of the Great War, available online at Sistory.

Ljubljana delivered.
Thank the Lord and the voters of the nation for freeing me of the dragon and those Teutophile rags at last!
In 1882, Germans lost their majority in Ljubljana city hall after 13 years of dominance. The illustration is an allegorical depiction of Ljubljana who has rid herself of “German” clothing (the top hat and frock coat), replacing it with traditional Slovenian garments. The dragon at her feet symbolises German sympathisers. Ljubljana Castle can be seen in the background.

Taken from the magnificent exhibition From Plague, Famine and War, Deliver Us, O Lord: Duchy of Carniola in Year One of the Great War, available online at Sistory.

Ljubljana delivered.

Thank the Lord and the voters of the nation for freeing me of the dragon and those Teutophile rags at last!

In 1882, Germans lost their majority in Ljubljana city hall after 13 years of dominance. The illustration is an allegorical depiction of Ljubljana who has rid herself of “German” clothing (the top hat and frock coat), replacing it with traditional Slovenian garments. The dragon at her feet symbolises German sympathisers. Ljubljana Castle can be seen in the background.

Taken from the magnificent exhibition From Plague, Famine and War, Deliver Us, O Lord: Duchy of Carniola in Year One of the Great War, available online at Sistory.

the Nagode trial, Ljubljana, 2 August 1947
(ph. Božo Štajer via the National Museum of Contemporary History)
The Nagode trial was a politically motivated trial against fifteen moderates, among them Črtomir Nagode, who had sought to restore Nagode’s liberal party after the Second World War in a Communist-dominated Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav authorities charged the group with treason, attempt to destroy the Yugoslav political system and acting as imperialist agents. Nagode and two others were sentenced to death by firing squad, the rest received lengthy prison sentences and were stripped of their civil rights.
The convictions were overturned in 1991 by the Supreme Court of newly independent Slovenia.

the Nagode trial, Ljubljana, 2 August 1947

(ph. Božo Štajer via the National Museum of Contemporary History)

The Nagode trial was a politically motivated trial against fifteen moderates, among them Črtomir Nagode, who had sought to restore Nagode’s liberal party after the Second World War in a Communist-dominated Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav authorities charged the group with treason, attempt to destroy the Yugoslav political system and acting as imperialist agents. Nagode and two others were sentenced to death by firing squad, the rest received lengthy prison sentences and were stripped of their civil rights.

The convictions were overturned in 1991 by the Supreme Court of newly independent Slovenia.

Politician Stane Kavčič speaks at a Socialist Alliance of Working People meeting, 2 November 1959
(ph. Miloš Švabić via the National Museum of Contemporary History)
The Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia was the largest civic organisation in Yugoslavia, bringing together workers and citizens, the League of Communists, various social and political organisations and all organised socialist forces. Its goal, as stated in the Yugoslav constutition, was to guide social development on the foundations of the power of and self-management by the working class, to keep the working class informed, to involve youth in the political process, to monitor the those in power, and to discuss social questions.

Politician Stane Kavčič speaks at a Socialist Alliance of Working People meeting, 2 November 1959

(ph. Miloš Švabić via the National Museum of Contemporary History)

The Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia was the largest civic organisation in Yugoslavia, bringing together workers and citizens, the League of Communists, various social and political organisations and all organised socialist forces. Its goal, as stated in the Yugoslav constutition, was to guide social development on the foundations of the power of and self-management by the working class, to keep the working class informed, to involve youth in the political process, to monitor the those in power, and to discuss social questions.